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Full text of "The History Of Western Education"

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATION   379

in the scientific principles underlying industry and commerce
and in the technique of a multitude of crafts, have sprung up under
State auspices.    And side by side with the colleges intended
mainly for the leaders of industry and for the various types of
specialists, opportunities for trade education are being furnished
to the rank and file in schools with a practical bias and in con-
tinuation classes.   The influence of industrialism on education,
however, is by no means confined to such specialized institutions.
It has already affected the ordinary work of education by giving a
new importance to science, modern languages and other subjects
with a direct bearing on practical life, and by creating a disposition
to disparage the humane studies which have no obvious utility.
A second noteworthy point is a remarkable extension of the,
function of the schools, beyond the mere provision of " learning,"
to a concern with every aspect of child life.   The beginnings of
this extension of function may be traced to the progressive
organization of the military resources of the modern State.   Those
nations which maintain great armies have found that many of
their recruits come to the service with impaired health*   The
effort to check this wastage has led to an active care for the health
of school-children, and the school has consequently become one
of the recognized agents in the work of improving the national
physique.   But though the driving power in this, movement came
from military necessity in the first instance, it has had the generous
backing of all social reformers.   It has always been recognized
by those concerned with the betterment of the community that
reform must begin with the children.   In this way the idea of
using the schools to promote the public health, which was all that
was called for from the military point of view, has been con-
siderably broadened out under humanitarian influences*    In
particular, there has been a growing sense of the responsibility
of the school for the moral well-being of the scholar.   Life in the
large towns which are characteristic of industrial civilization has
not only brought about a weakening of the moral sanctions which
determined conduct in the simpler days when most people lived
in villages and country districts, but has also made it more
difficult for the individual child to find his proper place in society.
Slowly but surely the school is stepping into the breach.  In many
cases it has become the centre of a variety of extra-academic
interests which help to cultivate e$prit de corps and so prepare for